Yoga Darshan
A Commentary on Patanjali's Yog Sutras



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Samadhipada
Sadhanapada
Vibhutipada
Kaiwalyapada

I. Samadhipada


1.
Translation - A narration of the precepts on yoga follows. (The discipline of Yoga is now explained)


2.
Translation - Restraining the impressions of mind is Yoga.
Exposition - Yoga is restraining the impressions of mind that are confined within physical limits.

3.
Translation - Eventually the beholder is established in his own form.
Exposition - By doing this, he, who experiences this visible world by means of his body awakens dormant consciousness of his immense mind that is confined within physical limitations and is then established in his own immensity.

4.
Translation - Mind understands its form only in accordance with its impressions.
Exposition - Assuming it to be a corporal body on account of being confined to physical limitations as also not having awakened it up to its immensity, consciousness cannot get a feeling of its unmanifest immensity that lies beyond the body.

5.
Translation - Afflicting and non-afflicting impressions are of five kinds.
Exposition - There are five kinds of afflicting and non-afflicting impressions, which withhold the unmanifest immense consciousness within physical limitations.

6.
Translation - These impressions are structure (form), destruction, doubt, dormancy and memory.
Exposition - These impressions are enumerated as intelligible form of body, destruction of body, being confined to body assuming oneself as either female or male, remaining dormant or ignorant about one’s immensity and on account of being confined to a body considering oneself as no more than a body.

7.
Translation - Direct, inference and testimony are the different features of evidence.
Exposition - Body appears as a consequence of birth.

8.
Translation - A false knowledge that one is ruined with the death of this corporal body is termed as destruction.
Exposition - False understanding that end of temporal body is the end of oneself is called destruction.

9.
Translation - Supported on the knowledge of words and devoid of substance, it is termed as doubt.
Exposition - To devise various conceptions about oneself as well as others on the basis of nothing more than hearsay and to make various imaginations about one’s existence or lack of it after death - is called as indecision.

10.
Translation - Sleep is a trait based on non-existence.
Exposition - To be ignorant about the dormant immense consciousness that lies within one’s physical limitations and to live life without knowing it is termed as sleep.

11.
Translation - Memory is appearance in the mind of a matter that was experienced.
Exposition - Owing to consciousness that is limited to physical limitations, to consider that the principle of life is to satiate senses, to retrospect pleasures, and to be passing life for their effectuation together with a consciousness having physical limitations - this is memory.

12.
Translation - Practice and detachment causes restraint.
Exposition - When one practices restraint of impressions of immense mind by performing yoga, which are limited to body and senses, a dislike for one’s limitations is created. This dislike restrains the five attributes.


13.
Translation - It gets established due to constant efforts made with perseverance.
Exposition - After gaining freedom from passions, continuous practice of yogic kriyas that are performed for awakening the dormant immense consciousness of one’s mind causes consciousness of mind to overcome physical limitations. The consciousness is then established in unmanifest vastness.

14.
Translation - Foundation becomes firm by prolonged continuous devoted practice.
Exposition - Immense consciousness of mind is awakened by performing prolonged devoted continuous practice of restraining impressions of mind that are confined to physical limitations. The awakened consciousness is then established in unmanifest awake actuality.

15.
Translation - Subjection of lack of interest for matters that are seen and heard is Vairagya (Freedom from passion/indulgence).
Exposition - There are two main supports that withhold a thought or a consciousness to physical limitations. Words and visions - these two basic causes that confine consciousness to a body, disappear as a result of valorous practice of yoga. The status of being established in pure thought beyond words and vision is termed as Vairagya.


16.
Translation - After knowing the conscious element that is beyond every vision, there is lack of interest for merit (excellence).
Exposition - When consciousness is established in an unmanifest conscious element that is above words and visions, then a desire is lost even for the merit of the awake. The main premise that manifests the attributes of consciousness is a body, and consciousness of mind grasps experiences through its medium. After expanding consciousness beyond physical limits, indifference is caused about the body as also about gaining knowledge of why consciousness confines to body.


17.
Translation - When deliberation, judgment, delight and ego are followed (in that order), one is established in superb discernment or one obtains extra-ordinary knowledge.
Exposition - What follows next is a description of the procedure of rising above words and scenes and thereby getting established in pure consciousness. First of all, when the impressions of mind confined to a body are restrained by practicing yoga, the consciousness of mind begins to awaken and a yogi is initiated into mental deliberations. By means of deliberations, viz. by finding solutions all by himself for one’s own difficulties, a yogi rises above words and vision and is eventually established in pure thought. When a state of pure thought beyond word and vision is attained, all his limitations begin to disappear. When consciousness makes an access in limitless immensity, he experiences the immensity of his own consciousness. This experience causes exultation to him and he gets a feeling of his own boundless, unmanifest immensity. This state of feeling of one’s own immensity is termed as Samprajnat, that is, superb discernment, or knowing oneself in totality.

18.
Translation - Cessation is another refinement, which remains before practice of knowledge.
Exposition - Considering oneself to be limited is overcome, when one knows about his immensity. After overcoming limitations and realizing one’s immensity, self-confidence is created. The training that takes place by virtue of this experience is another stage that represents refinement on the threshold of ultimate distinction.

19.
Translation - Becomes transmaterial by faith in existence, thereby disappears in nature.
Exposition - Having awakened one's entire consciousness, when faith in one's incorporeal existence is established, one realizes the mystery of birth and death. When this mystery is unfolded, relativity between the birth and death is annulled and birth and death also become null and void.

20.
Translation - Begets a different knowledge by means of faith, valor, retrospection, Samadhi and intellect.
Exposition - By drawing inspiration from a great person who is possessed of this superb knowledge by virtue of his practice of yoga, others begin to practice yoga with due faith on his lessons. Being ambitious of establishing themselves in to immensity they perform valorous practice for staying in profound meditation. They attain conscious presence after attaining superb intellect that is created by Samadhi.

21.
Translation - This stage is quickly achieved by means of intense activity.
Exposition - When a practice of attaining this stage is performed with fierce force in single lifetime, or through the medium of current body, one begets the consequence of knowing the secret of birth and death or that of existence and non-existence, because his consciousness has already grown in to immensity.

22.
Translation - Subsequently extra-ordinary tenderness is positively achieved midway in unlimited measures.
Exposition - After achieving this knowledge, such an extra ordinary yogi becomes absolutely passive towards everything and becomes suffused with extreme tenderness.

23.
Translation - Great effort for the sake of lord of all.
Exposition - A great person like him who is possessed of such splendor makes huge efforts after becoming equipped with great yogic powers to know the lord in his reality, viz. to know manifestor of everything.

24.
Translation - A distinguished conscious element is the lord that lies beyond affliction, action, reward and meaning.
Exposition - One realizes the lord in the state of ultimate excellence of yoga that causes establishment in an unmanifest, or in a state of Samadhi that drives beyond the realm of birth and death. The lord is one who manifests himself through the medium of everything, the one who manifests the entire world by conceiving it to himself all by himself, the one who bestows ultimate sanctity upon the collective pervasion by just manifesting it, that extraordinary reality is omnipresent and yet it is above everything, it is that omnipresent supreme lord.

25.
Translation - It is origin of everything and nothing more than this.
Exposition -

26.
Translation - He is beyond the boundaries of time and is the Guru of even the oldest.
Exposition - His presence is spread all over, he is too close and yet he is far away for ordinary people having dormant consciousness. He is sacred for everybody. He remains above everything and yet he is all pervading. He defies the authority of past, present and future; past, present and future are abridged within him. He appears as if in motion although he is actually still. He himself manifests past, present and future and therefore knows everything that has been manifested and also everything that would be manifested. He is the time of the time itself and being the manifestor of everything, he is primordial. He manifests everything and bestows knowledge and is therefore the lord of everybody. He is one who awakens consciousness and being the ultimate consequence of entire knowledge, he is himself the great time, the supreme lord.

27.
Translation - Om signifies him.
Exposition - The sound of Omkar that is manifested by him is an unmanifest sound for common people, who have a dormant consciousness. But yogis, established in the consciousness of void, perceive it. Om itself is a sound that is an indicator towards the lord, which great yogis have expressed with great compassion as a favor to common people.

28.
Translation - Om should be practiced and its substance should be felt.
Exposition - An ambitious person should time and again retrospect the sound of Om that signifies the supreme lord, with an understanding of its import (underlying indication) by awakening one’s dormant consciousness for knowing the origin of the entire world.

29.
Translation - Then consciousness becomes conspicuous and impediments positively disappear.
Exposition - While practicing in this manner, the dormant consciousness is awakened and one realizes unmanifest that remains beyond the body; thereby the afflictions that are caused during an interval between birth and death disappear.

What follows next is an introduction of the affliction faced by common people having dormant consciousness and the beginners among the contemplators of yoga.

30.
Translation - Disease, inactivity, doubt, carelessness, indolence, indifference, delusions regarding the obvious and being unable to attend the spiritual status, not being able to be resolute in that state after attaining it, these are afflictions.
Exposition -

31.
Translation - Grief, despair, and lack of control on body as well as breath – these distractions are also associated.

32.
Translation - A principle should be practiced for warding off these afflictions and distractions.
Exposition - In order to rise above these afflictions and distractions, one should practice yoga to awaken his consciousness.

Now what follows is an introduction of the successive results of practicing yoga.

33.
Translation - Friendship, compassion, happiness, pleasure and grief, virtue and vice – presence of these concerns is a reward of mind.
Exposition - Initial development of consciousness takes place by muttering Om with due understanding of its import. Compassion arouses about oneself, when one rises above matters that cause pleasure and misery and that are either good or bad and such as are specific only to senses. When consciousness is further developed, one realizes that one alone is one’s own friend. When a friendship is established with one’s own self, pleasure of a person depends only on his own acts and therefore a yogi becomes inactive or indifferent to all influences that withhold consciousness of mind within physical limitations. When he becomes inactive after awakening his consciousness, he begins to be established in himself.

34.
Translation - By means of emitting and withholding the breath.
Exposition - When he becomes indifferent about matters that circumscribe consciousness, yogi proceeds to know the reality of the manifestor of all by awakening his entire consciousness. By this time, he has already realized that the basic cause of consciousness remaining within physical limitations is lack of control on the rhythm of breaths. When this is realized, he is initiated in to the art of Pranayam by his preceptor viz. that great person, who kindled in him an ambition of giving up his limitations. A yogi then valorously performs Pranayam for expanding the dimension of Prana, which is expressed through breaths. Expertly exhaling and then expertly inhaling the breath causes the dimensions of the yogi’s soul to expand beyond physical limitations. A yogi then begins to stay in the realm of unmanifest consciousness beyond word and vision.
35.
Translation - An inclination in this regard arises, which keeps the mind focussed.
Exposition - Mind arouses attachment with matters, which causes physical limitations. The unmanifest state that is experienced upon the expansion of dimension of the Prana beyond the body is such that it ties the mind with the unmanifest by inspiring interest in it.

36.
Translation - That state is griefless and a state of wisdom.
Exposition - In this state, consciousness having expanded beyond the limitations of body, the secret of birth and death becomes evident. A yogi by knowing these secrets then attains liberation from the trauma of death that causes pain to everyone who is born.

37.
Translation - And mind becomes free from mundane desires.
Exposition - When knowledge of posthumous existence is gained, even mystery of birth no longer remains a mystery and then dormant consciousness of the yogi is awakened and expands beyond all organic subjects. In this state a Yogi becomes passive/indifferent even to the delight that his consciousness has grown immensely. This is a state of mind in which it is free from all passions.

38.
Translation - Based on the knowledge acquired in dream state.
Exposition - At this stage a yogi depends upon knowledge that causes dormant consciousness to become awake. This knowledge appears dreamlike to common people with dormant consciousness.

39.
Translation - By means of meditation, that, which is esteemed.
Exposition - After gaining this knowledge, meditation - viz. concentration of his awakened consciousness, on any matter that endears him positively results in its presentation together with its substance.

40.
Translation - Meditation causes authority over the tiniest to the greatest element.
Exposition - Then he earns authority over everything from the micro to the macro, because he already possesses the competence by means of meditation to unite with the manifestor of everything.

41.
Translation - When impurities inherent in accepted, acceptance and acceptable disappear, the impressions are diminished and mind becomes like a pure jewel.
Exposition - All the impressions of consciousness of mind limited to body having already diminished, consciousness begins to glow like a pure jewel at this point. Then whatever is grasped by the consciousness presents itself before a yogi together with its actuality as well as its manifestor.

42.
Translation - At this point, a deliberative state that is narrowed by doubts regarding the knowledge of words and meanings comes to an end.
Exposition - A narrow feeling that knowledge is gained by efforts of interpreting words and their meanings comes to an end when a yogi attains exalted status of surpassing a stage of deliberations by procuring pure knowledge.

43.
Translation - When retrospection becomes exceptionally pure, a formless state reflects only substance and bears no doubt.
Exposition - When consciousness becomes pure and splendid, retrospection also becomes exceptionally pure, then the memory that withholds one within the body as well as the memory that preserves substance of knowledge in the form of words present themselves before a yogi. A great yogi who is established in immensity due to his awakened consciousness unites with all and by becoming devoid of a form he has none of the doubts, he being above all doubts.

44.
Translation - This is subtle definition of reflective and non-reflective matters.
Exposition - Different levels of consciousness of a yogi, who awakens his immense consciousness by practicing yoga, are presented in a subtle manner like this for the sake of seekers.

45.
Translation - This subtle matter ends up in formlessness.
Exposition - Awakened consciousness of a yogi, who attains such exalted position, is established in the unmanifest that is beyond the subtle.

46.
Translation - But still it is causative meditation.
Exposition - The state of awakened consciousness even at this level remains causative.

47.
Translation - Proficient at non-causative level obtains spiritual reward.
Exposition - By getting established in a sublime thought that is above word and vision and after attaining perfection in that state, a great yogi begets a reward of knowing himself as well as knowing his manifestor.

48.
Translation - At this stage, the intellect is able to retain and foster the truth.
Exposition - Intellect of such great yogi at this stage becomes replete with truth that is manifested through the medium of entire visible world.

49.
Translation - This intellect is different from the intellect, which makes judgment on listening, and it has special significance.
Exposition - This intellect that retains the truth is different from the ordinary intelligence that makes judgment on the basis of listening and remains trapped in debate. Yogis aptly apply this for knowing the basic elements of special topics.

50.
Translation - Influences produced by this intellect, restrain other influences.
Exposition - Influences produced by an intellect that springs up after establishment in an unmanifest and that, which fosters the truth, restrain all other influences. Even the delight of knowing the unmanifest and of being established there is restrained by this extra ordinary intellect.

51.
Translation - When this is restrained, everything else is restrained, that is a state of non-causative Samadhi.
Exposition - A yogi who attains Ritambhara intellect becomes passive about the delight of knowing everything by its application. Then a state in which there is everything and yet it is as if there is nothing – is termed as non-causative Samadhi for the sake of explaining it to the others.


II. Sadhanapada


52.
Translation - Kriyayoga is a great effort for knowing the lord by means of penance and self-contemplation.
Exposition - Kriyayoga is awakening of one’s dormant immense consciousness by means of meditation and then a great effort of concentrating that awakened consciousness on to the lord for realizing him.

53.
Translation - This is meant for staying in deep meditation viz. Samadhi and for diminution of afflictions.
Exposition - This Kriyayoga leads to realization of lord through attainment of Samadhi and diminishes the afflictions suffered between birth and death.

54.
Translation - Ignorance, ego, attachment, hate and fear of death are afflictions.
Exposition - Every embodied being positively faces these five afflictions between birth and death –

Ignorance due to major part of mind being dormant,

On account of this ignorance to assume oneself as confined to physical limitations and hence a mere corporal body, and thereby remaining unaware about the immense unmanifest existence that lies beyond the body,

Being limited within physical limitations and being abnormally attached with sexual acts and to assume that alone to be the pleasure,

To presume enmity with anybody who obstructs in fulfilling of one’s desire, and

Because of giving preponderance to the body to remain lifelong in fear of death.

55.
Translation - Stage of ignorance is dormant, impotent, scattered and expansive.
Exposition - To consider oneself as a mere corporal body, attachment with sexual acts, to take enmity with the source of obstruction when obstructed in the fulfillment of physical desires, to consider physical pleasures as happiness and to remain in fear of death due to consciousness being confined to a body – regardless of the strength or weakness of these feelings, their place or their origin is nothing but the dormant consciousness of mind. Sages have termed these as ignorance.

56.
Translation - To fancy eternity in transient, holy in unholy, happiness in grief, and gain in loss – this is ignorance.
Exposition - A feeling that is always associated with a body while being confined to its limitations is to consider one’s insane or unholy mentality as the greatest or the most sanctimonious, and by virtue of a narrow point of view, which positively confines consciousness within physical limitations to feel happiness in such actions that yield temporal pleasures, but eventually inflict deathlike pain, to consider oneself to be a mere temporal body – this all is ignorance.

57.
Translation - Visible and vision unite and result in ego.
Exposition - Experiencing a visible body by means of own consciousness, and instead of understanding the body as a special form of manifestation of the consciousness, feeling that body itself is the consciousness – this is ego.

58.
Translation - Feeling of happiness accompanies attachment.
Exposition - An emotion that impels in to a feeling of happiness is termed as attachment.

59.
Translation - Grief accompanies hate.
Exposition - An emotion that impels in to a feeling of grief is hate.

60.
Translation - Natural and well known even to the learned ones is an intense attachment caused by the fear of death.
Exposition - Those who give preponderance to the body and consider themselves as learned solely by studying scriptures, which expound a presence of unmanifest beyond the body are found to be suffering from fear of death, just like those who have not studied scriptures and have never practiced yoga. This state is described as intense attachment caused by the fear of death.

61.
Translation - These afflictions are diminished by Kriyayoga and disappear when consciousness is established in its original source.
Exposition - All these afflictions that are experienced by a physically limited consciousness disappear as a consequence of entire consciousness of mind becoming awake and getting established in an unmanifest beyond the realm of body. In other words the afflictions merge in to their source from where they originated.

62.
Translation - Their impressions are abandoned by means of meditation.
Exposition - A yogi perfects the competence of meditation by performing a practice of restraining the impressions of consciousness of mind that are confined to the body. Eventually when his consciousness is awakened, he knows that a body and its senses are nothing but the instruments of the mind of acquiring experiences. When it is realized that he enjoys absolutely no authority of himself without a mind and its consciousness, all his afflictions that were experienced due to dormant consciousness, soon disappear.

63.
Translation - Desire of actions of which affliction is a basic source causes pain in seen and yet unseen incarnations.
Exposition - The basic source of these afflictions is the dormant consciousness of mind, that is, ignorance. Actions that further strengthen physical limitations and are performed with a desire of satiating senses result in a pain like that of fear of death in present life as well as in the future and yet unseen lives.

64.
Translation - Endurance of the source of afflictions and its maturity correspondingly causes birth, age and sufferings.
Exposition - So long as the basic cause of these afflictions is present, that is, so long as the consciousness of mind is dormant and remains confined to physical limitations, a desire to procure pleasures in accordance with the level of consciousness, actions that match with that desire, and as a result of these acts, a shorter or a longer life, occasion of death and again a new life with a limited intellect will follow. This will continue itself so long as one doesn’t free himself of all his limitations with the help of yoga.

65.
Translation - The fruits of delight and agony are the receipts of virtuous and evil motives respectively.
Exposition - When one’s entire consciousness is awakened by yoga and it is established beyond word and vision, then delight is occasioned by overcoming limitations as a result of awakened consciousness. Similarly, acts associated with a consciousness confined within a body that further strengthen the limitations of the body and are gratifying to the senses cause a pain of dispossessing a body when death presents itself.

66.
Translation - Resistance of natural properties and impressions by means of end-oriented misery and cultivation-oriented misery is also misery itself. All sages agree upon this.
Exposition - To remain unaware about the immense consciousness that is latent within oneself and in spite of cherishing within oneself a property of natural immensity, not to awaken that same by means of kriyayog, as also one’s acts that are performed with a consciousness having physical limitations results in fear of death and misery caused by fear. All sages who have perfected all their competencies by practicing kriyayog know about this.

67.
Translation - One should absolve from a misery that has not yet appeared.
Exposition - Having realized death even when he is alive, a yogi doesn’t feel the pain of dispossessing the body when death presents itself at the end of journey of a body. Because as a result of practicing yoga, he is established in an unmanifest immensity beyond the body and he has already realized his existence even without the support of a body. For him death is no more than a medium of attaining immensity by surpassing the limitations of the body.

68.
Translation - Union of viewer and visible is a reason for dissociable misery.
Exposition - By means of a body, consciousness experiences the visible world for strengthening the pain of death and limits itself within the physical limitations for knowing itself completely. By tempering his body in the fires of yoga and thereby awakening entire dormant consciousness of his mind, a yogi attains freedom from the need of availing of a body once again.

69.
Translation - A brilliant action and position is natural to it. Elements and senses is its form and diminution of pleasure is its purpose, it is visible.
Exposition - This body and the entire visible world is manifested through the five elements namely earth, water, fire, air and sky. Amongst the embodied ones, everybody, in accordance with the brilliance of his consciousness, gets a result of either remaining attached with pleasures in physical limitations or that of entirely awakening his consciousness by practicing yoga and thereby realizing the god by concentrating that awakened consciousness on to Him. The consciousness of the immense mind that is manifested by the indestructible supreme creator, who manifests everything on the support of five elements namely earth, water, fire, air and sky, gets confined to physical limitations for knowing itself.

70.
Translation - Its properties are excellent and ordinary, embodied and incorporeal.
Exposition - A consciousness that is manifested in the body through the five constituents of matter namely earth, water, fire, air and sky is unmanifest and yet it is manifested in the body. It is extraordinary and yet it becomes ordinary by being dormant and limited within a body. It is as if it is null although it is there. These properties are experienced due to manifestation of consciousness.

71.
Translation - Viewer is but an instrument of viewing and when purified, it beholds in accordance with the impressions of mind.
Exposition - That intrinsically pure, unblemished consciousness acquires support of a body and takes various experiences by means of it, while beholding entire visible world.

72.
Translation - A sense of visible is for him only.
Exposition - Reality of visible world as well as its manifestor presents itself directly before a yogi, who tempers his body in the fires of yoga and awakens that sublime, unblemished, unmanifest, immense consciousness.

73.
Translation - For him, whose motive is accomplished, even the perishable doesn’t perish, because that is different from the ordinary.
Exposition - The yogi who surpasses the realm of word and vision and awakens unmanifest immense consciousness, concentrates it on to the cause that manifests everything. Thereby he realizes the mystery of the manifestation of the world, and becomes accomplished while beholding everywhere the lord who manifests himself through the medium of entire visible creation. The yogi is possessed of a knowledge that what appears to be a perishing world on an ordinary view, will never perish on account of its being an inherent form of the supreme lord.

74.
Translation - Union of oneself with the power of one’s lord is itself the cause of attaining the intrinsic form.
Exposition - Union of unmanifest consciousness with a body is itself a cause of attaining intrinsic form for a yogi because he has awakened the entire consciousness of his mind.

75.
Translation - Reason of that union is ignorance.
Exposition - The reason of unmanifest consciousness uniting with a body and getting confined within physical limitations is ignorance or that of consciousness becoming dormant by limiting itself to the physical limitations.

76.
Translation - In absence of that ignorance even union becomes absent and then exclusive spirituality is attained.
Exposition - A yogi kindles fires of yoga in his body by practicing yoga and awakens his entire dormant consciousness. At this stage since ignorance is no more present, viz. consciousness is not dormant anymore, he does not require union of body and consciousness for knowing himself. Eventually, after uniting with that supreme lord, the time of all times, which is manifested through the medium of entire visible creations, he eventually unites with entire creation and becomes a unique manifestation of the lord. Sages have termed this state as exclusive solitude.

77.
Translation - Free from doubt, the judicious knowledge is a means of ending union.
Exposition - Knowledge originating from judgment, developed by intensive practice of yoga, or said in other words, a knowledge that is caused by awakening of consciousness is a means of ending the necessity for consciousness to successively unite with body.

78.
Translation - Yogi’s intellect has seven stages.
Exposition - There are seven successive stages of development of consciousness of yogi, who is ambitious of staying away from all afflictions by way of knowing the mystery of birth and death.

What follows is a description of the order in which these stages are surpassed.

79.
Translation - After diminution of impurity by performing expedients of yoga, the brilliance of knowledge reaches the fame of sagacity.
Exposition - Practice of the expedients of yoga by persevering efforts causes entire consciousness to gradually awaken and develop into a consequence of knowing the lord, who manifests everything and then fosters and destroys that all. The consciousness is then established in a sublime brilliance. Entire dormant consciousness of a yogi, who performs an ordered practice of these expedients, crosses physical limitations and by rising above the realms of words and visions, it unites with the manifestor of all – the eternal supreme creator.

What follows next is an advice on the activities of eight expedients of yoga for restraining the impressions of mind. Their sequential practice causes the consciousness to establish in the unmanifest by overcoming the main seven steps of impressions limited to the body.

80.
Translation - Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayam, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi are eight main expedients of yoga.
Exposition - Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayam, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi are those main expedients of yoga by means of which consciousness confined to physical limitations is liberated from physical limitations. When consciousness is totally awakened, it is established in its immensity. Seven levels of consciousness are experienced by step-by-step practice of these expedients. Yama and Niyama are respectively first and second levels of consciousness. Asana, Pranayam and Pratyahara are third, fourth and fifth levels respectively. Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi together are termed as Sanyam and that is sixth level of awakening. Consequence of practicing Sanyam is the seventh level. This narration is for the sake of understanding of common people.

81.
Translation - Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Aparigrah make Yama.
Exposition - Yama, the first level of consciousness for aggregating the scattered impressions that are limited to physical boundaries is now introduced as under –

Nonviolence - Absence of a feeling of violence unto oneself as well as other life forms, i.e. to remember that this body itself by virtue of being a medium of manifestation of consciousness is respectable and that it cherishes within itself an infinite capacity regardless of whether the body is your own or someone else’s.

Truth – When the truth of manifestation of a body is understood, one becomes extraordinarily honest unto oneself as well as other embodied beings, because he is able to behold infinite consciousness being dormant within him and other embodied beings.

When non-violence, truth and honesty are attained, attachment for sexual pleasure comes to an end. When violence unto oneself disappears, one can realize that the consequence of copulation is violence to the large number of sperms. Subsequent to becoming non-violent, a desire for sex disappears and one is established in continence and then one becomes averse to procure for him any provisions, so much so that he is averse even to procure decorations. A yogi, who experiences this level of consciousness is said to be established in Yama.

82.
Translation - This is a universal vow for everybody for reaching above birth, place, time and occasion.
Exposition - These five yamas that regulate the consciousness, which is limited to body and organs after birth, are a beginning of the great vow of practicing yoga for surpassing through the medium of a field viz. body beyond the limitations of body.

83.
Translation - Shaucha (Purity), Santosha (Contentment), Tapa (penance), Swadhyaya (Self-study) these four great efforts form Niyama.
Exposition - When consciousness awakens and begins to sublimate due to meditation, then real purity (Shouch) springs up and yogi experiences the contentment (Santosh) of a beginning of an end of ignorance. Then after crossing this level, a yogi searches his own self, awakens his immense consciousness and puts great effort (tapa) to know him who manifests everything.

84.
Translation - When an impediment of contradiction is faced, an opposite reflection should be resorted to.
Exposition - When physical limitations become stronger, its opposite reflection that this body is but a medium for the consciousness to receive experiences and that organs perform just like instruments of the mind, then controls the desire for the pleasure and for gratifying the body by means of senses.

85.
Translation - Violence etc are contradictions; they are one’s own, implemented by others or by approval. Their reasons are desire, anger and illusion and these are differentiated as soft, medium and intense and their consequence is misery and ignorance becoming perpetual. This is counter-reflection.
Exposition - When (a trait of) violence is being committed, whether by oneself or through others or by others and being approved by oneself, at that moment the consciousness of that person is dominated by desire, anger and illusion. As per the level of consciousness, these passions prevail in soft, medium or excessive degrees within those persons, who are limited to physical limitations. As a result, consciousness is withheld within the limits of body and organs, and it is only ignorance that is nurtured and a great pain is inflicted when death presents itself.

86.
Translation - Enmity disappears in the proximity of him, who is established in non-violence.
Exposition - Passion of violence unto oneself as well as others disappears, when a passion of non-violence is aroused. A person not committing enmity unto himself is none’s enemy. He, whose passion of violence unto himself has disappeared by consciousness getting illuminated is alone established in non-violence, because if even a little violence unto oneself is left in his mind, there will necessarily be a feeling of violence about others as well. One, who is his own friend, alone can be a friend of all others.

87.
Translation - Establishment of truth becomes a recipient of rewards of acts.
Exposition - When the truth that underlies manifestation of a body is understood and the yogi becomes fully aware of physical limitations, his body itself becomes a resort to receive the fruits of his actions.

88.
Translation - When passion of stealth disappears (Asteya), all the jewels present themselves.
Exposition - Those who get a reflection of the immense dormant consciousness, which is latent within them and are intent to awaken it by yoga so as to free themselves of the afflictions faced between the birth and death are blessed with a superb jewel of immensity of consciousness for winning over their passion of stealth of themselves. It may be said that after having acquired unlimited mental strength of yoga, all the best facets of the entire world present themselves before a man.

89.
Translation - When established in continence, strength is obtained.
Exposition - When non-violence is affirmed, violence about him disappears and a yogi has no desire for sexual acts. His semen i.e. principal virile fluid is digested by practice of yoga in his body itself and produces Ojas (extraordinary potency) that resides in the heart. When Ojas is generated, a yogi acquires extraordinary brilliance and mental strength and this is the foundation of strength that drives him up to the end result of yoga.

90.
Translation - When voluntary poverty (Apraigrah) is settled, one knows the reason of birth.
Exposition - When established in indigence, a yogi rises above the desire of procuring any object and is established in voluntary indigence. Not procuring even the Sanskaras (stored up Karma) at this moment, he desires to know the reason of his birth and he is capable to satisfy this desire of knowledge by virtue of the mental strength he owes to continence.

91.
Translation - Shauch causes aversion for one’s body, and then association with others becomes absent.
Exposition - When the desire of knowing the reason of birth arises and while yogi satisfies it, his consciousness begins to sublimate. When he knows the reason of his birth, he develops a dislike for remaining confined within the physical limitations of a body once again. When such dislike rouses a yogi makes intensive strong practice of yoga to liberate his consciousness from physical limitations and by separating himself from the association of others, he resides in seclusion.

92.
Translation - When I-consciousness becomes sublime; transparency (purity) of mind, concentration, authority over organs and a qualification to know oneself is created.
Exposition - Knowledge of true nature of one’s existence is obtained while residing in solitude and enduring to realize and cross the limitations of body. Consciousness then awakens and stays in concentration. Or said differently, a thought of knowing one’s immensity becomes foremost or pre-emanates all other thoughts. While realizing physical limitations the relation of body and mind is understood and thereby one knows that body and organs are nothing but a medium of having experiences for the consciousness. Soon after this knowledge, control of mind over senses is established and a competence for awakening one’s dormant consciousness and thereby establishing in immensity is acquired.

93.
Translation - Contentment (Santosh) causes highest happiness.
Exposition - A yogi gets the satisfaction of knowing the objective of his life when the motive of availing of a life for awakening entire consciousness of mind by means of a body is understood. He then puts in great efforts to accomplish his objective and experiences happiness.

94.
Translation - Penance (Tapa) removes impurity, body and senses thereby develop up to their ultimate limit.
Exposition - While making arduous efforts for knowing physical limitations, body of a yogi develops up to its ultimate limit. While developing body, he very well realizes the importance of mind. When pre-eminence of mind is understood, all his sense organs become splendid and the consciousness of a yogi becomes resplendent by being awake and advances into immensity.

95.
Translation - Imminent capacity is fully appropriated by a study of own self (Swadhyaya).
Exposition - In this manner when consciousness becomes immense through the medium of body and advances farther in to immensity, then yogi studies his mind himself and gets a reflection of the cause of manifestation of consciousness. He then earns the capacity/competence of fully appropriating his awakened consciousness to know the elements of that supreme spirit that manifest the consciousness.

96.
Translation - Ultimate accomplishment of Samadhi takes place due to great efforts for knowing the lord (Ishwar Pranidhan).
Exposition - A yogi makes great efforts to attain Samadhi for knowing the manifestor of consciousness, the lord – the root cause of consciousness itself, that is, to know the supreme reality by concentrating immense consciousness by complete awakening of the mind.

97.
Translation - Posture causes happiness of stillness.
Exposition - At this stage of development, a yogi has already realized that a body is but a medium for manifestation of unmanifest consciousness and lack of control over breath is a reason for the immense consciousness to be limited to physical limitations and remaining dormant. While developing his body up to its ultimate limits, firmness develops in the body of a yogi. He feels pleasure in making efforts for awakening his consciousness by restraining the motion of the body. Motion of a mind begins where motion of the body comes to an end. He is able to visualize the far end of physical limitations as also the starting point of knowing the spread of consciousness. Even from a general point of view, it can be readily understood that a practice of yogic postures causes firmness in various activities or states of the body and a yogi, who variously experiences physical firmness can experience the pleasure of complete stillness. This is called as stillness in motion and motion in stillness.

98.
Translation - Relaxation of efforts causes an end in infinity.
Exposition - When motion of a body comes to a halt, efforts of knowing physical limitations reach an end, thereby the physical bindings on the consciousness that is limited to the body get released and consciousness of a yogi begins to orient towards infinity.

99.
Translation - Then effects of conflicts are no more.
Exposition - When consciousness becomes awakened up to this level, all doubts regarding one’s body and consciousness disappear and a yogi becomes qualified to practice pranayam for expanding unto infinity the dimensions of the Prana, the resort of consciousness, which is conspicuous through the medium of breaths.

100.
Translation - In this state, untying the rhythm of inhalation and exhalation is Pranayam.
Exposition - Restraining the natural course or rhythm of inhalation and exhalation in a resolute position after completely overcoming the shakiness of body and withholding the motion of breaths with a special skill for acquiring a capability of expanding the dimensions of Prana that is manifested through their medium to reach beyond the realm of body, this proficiency is termed as Pranayam.

101.
Translation - Exhaling, Inhaling and withholding, these prolonged and shortened courses of Prana are recognized on the basis of place and time.
Exposition - Now the sequence in which a yogi awakens his dormant consciousness by practicing Pranayama and becomes qualified to realize the manifestor of all, originator of all origins is explained.

After realizing his physical limitations, a yogi in his resolute state practices the first exercise of restraining the natural course of breaths i.e. Prana and Apana and of oblating Prana into Apana and Apana into Prana for overcoming their courses so as to release his consciousness from physical limitations. When practice at this level matures, consciousness of a yogi crosses physical limitations and begins to establish in the unmanifest. A yogi who attains this status is qualified for the practice of second stage Pranayam. This Pranayam is performed in Khechari mudra (in which tongue is folded backwards and is admitted in to the palette, it is then driven upwards through the interior of nasal cavity), in which Apana is raised upwards and is placed in the heart and Prana is displaced from its natural place heart and descends up to the place of Apana. When this practice matures, the third stage is that of performing Khechari posture and then to still Prana and Apana after interchanging their places between them. Consciousness of a yogi who has passed this course develops and reaches the threshold of staying in a state of Samadhi. At this stage the heart beats of a yogi become quiescent, whereby he crosses physical limitations and begins to know the secret of life and death.

102.
Translation - Fourth Pranayam is beyond external and internal matters.
Exposition - A yogi who is accomplished at this exalted level only is qualified to practice fourth stage Pranayam. Only those of the yogis are able to perform this Pranayam successfully, whose heartbeats easily become quiescent in a state of concentration of mind and who have started knowing the relativity of life and death. A yogi who is accomplished in this Pranayam is blessed with a direct view of him who manifests all, who is beyond the realm of all internal and external matters, who is the origin of the entire world – the unmanifest time, the supreme lord and then Yogi advances to become time conscious himself. In this Pranayam, Khechari Mudra is performed and then while staying in Yoni Mudra, Prana is oblated in Prana itself. A yogi who is realized of the relativity of life and death gives an oblation of his Prana by means of this Pranayam by igniting fires of Yoga in his body for knowing the manifestor of life and death – the time itself.

103.
Translation - Then veil of light diminishes.
Exposition - As a consequence of all these four stages of Pranayam, his ignorance disappears and his immense consciousness begins to glow.

104.
Translation - Mind becomes capable of making a resolve (Dharana).
Exposition - At this stage, mind acquires capability of making firm determination.

105.
Translation - Not indulging in desires, senses follow the mind. This is Pratyahar.
Exposition - When the covering enveloping the consciousness disappears, mind no longer needs to receive experiences through the senses and senses merge in to mind, which is their origin. This is as if they get dissolved. This state is called as Pratyahar.

106.
Translation - Then senses become extremely compliant.
Exposition - When consciousness awakens in its immensity as a reward of Pranayam, yogi becomes acquainted with a body, which supports senses as well as all those competencies of mind that become conspicuous through the body and he gains authority over all of them. A yogi then wields ultimate yogic strength.


III. Vibhutipada


107.
Translation - Binding of mind to a specific subject with firm determination is Dharana.
Exposition - An act of concentrating awakened consciousness of one’s mind upon any subject with firm determination is termed as Dharana.

108.
Translation - That determination remaining steady is Dhyana.
Exposition - When awakened consciousness of mind unites with a specific object on which it is concentrated with firm determination for knowing it – that state is termed as Dhyana.

109.
Translation - When form disappears and only substance is experienced, that is Samadhi.
Exposition - The conspicuous outward form of that field or object then vanishes due to meditation and mind experiences the cause of its manifestation or its original form and becomes familiar with all its aspects. Resultant of concentration of consciousness with firm determination is termed as Samadhi.

110.
Translation - Three together is Sanyam.
Exposition - A determination for knowing any specific object (Dharana), with this determination to concentrate one’s mind that is replete with yogic force on that object (Dhyana) and resultant of concentrating mind with firm determination (Samadhi), these three levels of consciousness together are termed as Sanyam.

111.
Translation - Mastery on Sanyam illumines intellect.
Exposition - When proficiency is achieved on performing Sanyam, an extra-ordinary intellect springs up in a yogi, that is, a yogi becomes possessed of the power of completely knowing and acquiring an object upon which he performs Sanyam. This is as if he wins authority over it. This is termed as ultimate state of consciousness or that of intellect.

112.
Translation - This should be practiced step by step.
Exposition - A yogi should practice employment of Sanyam.

113.
Translation - These three (Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi) are intimate aspects of previous practice.
Exposition - Being resultant of the earlier introductory practice of yama, niyam, asana and Pranayama, Sanyam – that is Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi are most esteemed aspects of Yoga. A yogi earns the competence of knowing secrets of the entire universe by practicing Sanyam.

114.
Translation - Even then these are outward expedients of becoming seedless (free from birth).
Exposition - Sanyam or Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi together are outward or initial stages of attaining a status that is called seedless (free from birth) Samadhi, which is a state that occurs by being passive even to the delight of knowing everything.

115.
Translation - Very strong knowledge is caused due to dissolution of distractive ignorant and dismissive settings of mind.
Exposition - Interrelation of mind with consciousness at this stage of dissolution is a consequence of restraining the impressions of mind, which are limited to the body. Having acquired complete knowledge of all such fields on which Sanyam is being performed, all distractive ignorant and dismissive settings that existed about those fields are illuminated and a very strong knowledge about those fields arises in the mind. At the moment of absorption of ignorance about that field in to its knowledge, the yogi gets the result of relating consciousness with the basic cause of that field.

116.
Translation - Course of mind becomes steady by having acquired knowledge.
Exposition - Knowledge about the central topic of Sanyam is gained at the moment of merger of ignorance with knowledge and consciousness of a yogi once again assumes steady course.

117.
Translation - Absorption of mind at one single point from everywhere causes gain of Samadhi.
Exposition - Concentration of an immense mind replete with Yogic strength in various objects concludes in a consequence of Samadhi.

118.
Translation - Having grasped the result of concentration of mind, peace once again prevails.
Exposition - Dawn of peace follows a determination of procuring results of concentration.

119.
Translation - After knowing the potentialities/potencies of the five elements (namely earth, water, fire, air and sky), a consequence of defining status and properties of that supreme element, which fosters them, is procured.
Exposition - In this manner, when all the potentialities of all the five elements - earth, water, fire, air and sky, which are the medium of manifesting the creation are known, attributes of all of them, their all states and their effects are also known and a yogi can grasp the substance of the original element that fosters them.

120.
Translation - He, who retains them in their past, present and future, is the supreme lord.
Exposition - He, who remains above these five elements (earth, water, fire, air and sky) of manifesting the world, he who is uniformly present in past, present and future, he who is beyond everything and manifests everything and he, who manifests the universe through the universal mediums and fosters it is the supreme lord.

121.
Translation - Difference of sequence is the cause of difference of effects.
Exposition - Turns of time namely past, present and future, which are experience due to varying levels of consciousness, cause varying effects of the means of manifesting the creation (namely earth, water, fire, air and sky).

122.
Translation - Performing Sanyam on the triple effects causes knowledge of past and future.
Exposition - On account of these three turns of time (namely past, present and future), three different effects of these five elements of matter and their varying combinations are experienced. By concentrating a mind replete with yogic strength on to these effects, their original cause becomes known and thereby the effects that took place in the past and those that would happen in the future are also known.

123.
Translation - Various false impressions are caused in absence of knowledge about the implied sense of various sounds. Knowledge of the languages of all animals is obtained by performing Sanyam on the form of their sounds.
Exposition - Word or distinct sound is a means of expressing unexpressed thoughts. All life forms make use of sounds or words to express their thoughts. When thinking implied behind a sound or a word is not known, there is a confusion regarding its meaning/import. By performing Sanyam on the course of unexpressed thought and a sound (or a word) that expresses it, one obtains knowledge of words of all life forms and of the unexpressed thoughts expressed by them.

124.
Translation - Knowledge of the previous life is caused by having a direct view of a persona.
Exposition - Subsequent to taking an overview of the present mindset and of physical structure by performing Sanyam on his own mentality and body, yogi obtains the knowledge of those past deeds that are the cause of this body and mentality. When this knowledge is obtained, he can directly see his previous life, the deeds of which are the cause of present life.

125.
Translation - This knowledge itself succeeds into knowledge of other mind.
Exposition - By performing Sanyam on the physical structure as well as passions of previous life, a yogi gains knowledge of his mind by knowing his entire bringing up.

126.
Translation - Not only this knowledge, but also beyond this, the cause of its presence and its unmanifest support is also known.
Exposition - Knowledge not only regarding mind but also beyond that – i.e. regarding the support of mind itself and its origin that is unmanifest and imperceptible is also procured by a yogi.

127.
Translation - Sanyam on the appearance of the body causes strengthening of the capacity to grasp it and thereby a capacity to visualize the unknown is developed and a yogi gains the capacity of forsaking body.
Exposition - Performing Sanyam upon one’s body and its nature strengthens his capacity to grasp the unmanifest and thereby spring up a power to visualize the unknown, and a yogic power of forsaking corporal body appears in a yogi.

128.
Translation - Performing Sanyam upon strongly as well as moderately impetuous deeds causes knowledge of death, as also obtained by performing Sanyam upon bad omens.
Exposition - When Sanyam is performed on the communion of consciousness and body i.e. on the deeds that are possible by a communion of an impetuous consciousness and a slow body then consciousness has a foresight of physical signs that causes the knowledge of the occasion of death. Then a yogi forsakes his corporal body by means of yogic power and tends to the ultimate destination i.e. he attains the ultimate speed. In other words, he attains the perfection in the motion of consciousness.

129.
Translation - Power is generated by knowing the beginning of intimacy.
Exposition - Yogic power is created by knowledge of intimate relation of a body and the consciousness.

130.
Translation - This power causes all other powers to be on hand.
Exposition - When yogic power is acquired, all other powers become compliant to the yogi. It may be said that having gained a true perception of body and consciousness, one knows the element that manifests body and consciousness and the power of doing absolutely anything is created in a yogi.

131.
Translation - When a power of observing origin is established, knowledge of minute, hidden and remote is acquired.
Exposition - When all the powers are mastered, by means of yogic power an awareness about that, which is presumed as remote, for its being unmanifest – that is about that which manifests everything smaller than the smallest, begin to grow.

After having an introduced to the practice and to the results of performing Sanyam, what follows next is an introduction to the sequence of practicing Sanyam.

132.
Translation - Performing Sanyam upon Sun causes knowledge of the space.
Exposition - Concentration of a mind that is empowered with yogic strength on the sun, which is basic to the existence of solar family causes knowledge of the void that contains the motion of the sun, that is that of a spacious void that fosters the sun - a void that supports matter and thereby fosters everything. It may be said that a yogi gains knowledge about the origin of the existence of the solar system.

133.
Translation - Performing Sanyam on moon causes knowledge of star systems.
Exposition - Subsequent to gaining knowledge of the void that sustains everything and that abounds in everything, a yogi by performing Sanyam on moon – the satellite of earth, acquires the knowledge of its motion and that of gravitation, which is the basis of its relationship with the earth. By gaining this knowledge, a yogi is able to know the course of all star systems and the truth of their mutual relations.

134.
Translation - Performing Sanyam upon stillness causes knowledge of motion.
Exposition - Knowledge of all kinds of motion, from gross to subtle, is obtained after knowing the actuality of stillness (absolute stillness) by performing Sanyam upon it. Omnipresent void that is eternally still (absolute) is the basis of perception of all the motion. Knowledge of motion can be gained only after knowing the absolute stillness.

135.
Translation - Knowledge of arrangement of corporal matter is gained by performing Sanyam on the core of the mind.
Exposition - After knowing void in its elements, knowledge of the arrangements of entire universe is obtained by performing Sanyam upon the core of the universe.

Following precepts explain the stages of performing Sanyam for knowing the element that manifests immensity as also the immensity prevailing in the body, which supports consciousness and is a medium of knowing immensity.

136.
Translation - Space in throat causes prevention of hunger and thirst.
Exposition - Thirst and hunger are not felt by performing Sanyma on the Prana by feeling the space inside one’s throat by khechari mudra. The body does not need food and water as long as this Mudra is maintained. Consequently, unhindered practice of Sanyam for knowing the manifestor of the immense becomes possible.

137.
Translation - Absolute tranquility is achieved, when Kurma vayu can be maintained quiescent for 24 minutes.
Exposition - Performing Sanyam upon Prana in Khechari Mudra causes control over sub-Prana called Kurma. When it becomes possible to maintain Kurma vayu in tranquility for 24 minutes, consciousness of yogi surpasses his physical boundaries. In this state the movement of heart ceases completely and yet the yogi does not die.

138.
Translation - The accomplished one then beholds the divine flame in his cerebrum.
Exposition - When Kurma vayu becomes totally still and the body becomes as if dead because of performing Sanyam on Prana in Khechari Mudra, then consciousness glows with its full intensity, and the yogi has a direct perception of him, who manifests consciousness, the eternal, the brilliance of all brilliance, which sages have described with various adorations such as the supreme lord, brahma, eternal time and many others.

139.
Translation - The intellect to know everything is gained.
Exposition - A competence to know the manifestor of everything by direct perception then arises in a yogi.

140.
Translation - Sanyam upon the core causes knowledge to the mind.
Exposition - The yogi begins to establish in the consciousness of the consciousness that manifests everything, by performing sanyam on the heart of the universe, that is, upon its creator.

141.
Translation - Having already experienced a unique boundless presence of the aloof conscious element, knowledge of that aloof consciousness is obtained, by performing Sanyam upon that par-discourse for the purpose of knowing it.
Exposition - When the knowledge of the presence of manifestor of everything, who is boundless and who imparts consciousness to the conscious is obtained, a yogi proceeds to concentrate such highly awakened consciousness of his mind with a firm determination and performs Sanyam on that element for knowing it, which is present everywhere and yet remains beyond everything and that which is known only after knowing everything else. Thereby a yogi knows that element by having a direct perception of it and becomes possessed of the knowledge of its actuality.

142.
Translation - By experiencing Shruti (the voice of creator), through original experience a yogi becomes possessed of an intellect of narrating it.
Exposition - After knowing in elements, Him, who manifests everything, a yogi has an experience of directly hearing the voice of creator, which can be understood through the medium of his intellect. A yogi thereby realizes reality and becomes qualified to instruct others on how it can be realized.

143.
Translation - This is a physical impediment for him, who is posed in Samadhi, for others it is purifying for their distractive ignorant and dismissive mindsets.
Exposition - This affair is a physical impediment for him, who is posed in Samadhi, but for others it is purifying of their distractive ignorant and dismissive mindsets.

144.
Translation - By removing the cause of bondage, a yogi experiences moving about at will by inhabiting in a different body.
Exposition - By casting away the cause that binds a gross body with consciousness, that is, by expanding the consciousness beyond the boundaries of gross body by means of Pranayam, a yogi can liberate his consciousness from the corporal body and can move about in the entire creation by means of his subtle body and if he so wishes, he can inhabit in any desired body.

145.
Translation - When Udana is controlled; water, mud and thorns do not touch gross body due to upward lift.
Exposition - The subtle body is linked to the corporal body on the support of Udana (one of the five principal life winds namely Prana, Apana, Samana, Udana and Vyana). Being in the form of Prana, it is not affected by water, mud, thorns etc because subtle body has a natural course above these all.

146.
Translation - Control on Saman causes burning.
Exposition - When complete authority is acquired over Saman (one of the five principal divisions namely Prana, Apana, Samana, Udana and Vyana) by means of Pranayam, a yogi acquires power to burn off his corporal body simply by willing, when permanently casting away his body by yogic power.

147.
Translation - Performing Sanyam on an inter-relation of sound and the element sky causes divine audition.
Exposition - Principle property of the element sky is sound or word. By performing Sanyam on the inter-relation of one’s sensitivity to sound and the element sky, auditory functioning of a yogi becomes divine and having known the principle property of the element sky, he becomes capable of hearing at his will any sound that prevails in that element.

148.
Translation - Sky travel begins due to communion with atmosphere by performing Sanyam upon interrelation of sky element and the body.
Exposition - After knowing the principle property of the element sky, when a yogi performs Sanyam upon the interrelation of the body and the sky, his body acquires the property of the element sky, becomes weightless and begins to levitate. A yogi then acquires the capacity of flying bodily in the sky.

149.
Translation - Unimagined properties beyond the body are termed as Maha-videh (The Super Body beyond the capacity of physical body) that causes disappearance of veils around light.
Exposition - After knowing by means of a physical body about one’s existence beyond it, experience of one’s existence beyond a corporal body becomes firm and a yogi becomes free from all veils of ignorance surrounding his consciousness and his gross body.

150.
Translation - Performing Sanyam upon the secret truth of a relation of the gross form and the subtle causes authority over the elements.
Exposition - A yogi gains control over these five elements (namely earth, water, fire, air and sky) through his body itself by performing Sanyam on them after knowing subtle proportions in which these five great elements that are basic to the manifestation of a gross body are present in his own body. He then becomes competent to choose the proportion of their coming together as his body at his free will.

151.
Translation - Then Anima etc become conspicuous and a wealth of a body, which has the property of not halting anywhere, is acheived.
Exposition - When this competence is attained, a yogi avails of Anima, Laghima, Mahima, Prapti, Prakamya, Vashitva, Ishitritva, and Yatra-Kama-Vasayitva these eights extra ordinary capacities. His gross body then becomes divine, he acquires authority over all the five elements, and his now divine body is not hampered by any element since it holds the core of their consciousness (of the five elements).

152.
Translation - Beautiful formation, strength and diamond like constitution of body is physical wealth.
Exposition - When this state is attained, a yogi begets extraordinarily charming looks and constitution of his body becomes similar to diamond just as Carbon is transformed in to diamond in the interior of the earth due to excessive temperature and pressure. Much in the same manner, the body of a yogi as it existed before practicing yoga gets transformed by fires of yoga. Thereby his body becomes diamond like and he becomes possessed of great powers. Thinking even on the basis of contemporary knowledge, we find that the support of our life and of the manifestation of our body as well as the gross world is carbon molecules. The most ordered arrangement of carbon molecules is diamond. Arrangement of carbon molecules in a yogi’s body is transformed like an arrangement of carbon molecules in a diamond – the purest form of carbon and a yogi’s body becomes divine. Yogis acquire a wealth of such body endowed with eight super powers viz. Anima, Laghima, Mahima, Prapti, Prakamya, Vashitva, Ishitritva, and Yatra-Kama-Vasayitva.

153.
Translation - By performing Sanyam upon the use of self-consciousness of a body so awarded, a control is gained over its capacities.
Exposition - When a divine body is so obtained by a yogi, his feeling of being becomes divine. By performing Sanyam on the uses of this divine body, yogi acquires knowledge regarding everything that is possible by his now divine body.

154.
Translation - Then there is that foremost ability by which movement of the body becomes infinite like that of the mind.
Exposition - Then the yogi enjoys the foremost ability of reaching out anywhere at the speed of mind with his divine corporal body. He is able to realize that a body being a manifestation of mind, or of consciousness it can reach the speed of mind. When this knowledge is acquired by means of Sanyam, the speed of his corporal body becomes infinite like that of a mind.

155.
Translation - Thus by achieving supernatural, self developed behavior which is beyond the normal nature, a yogi becomes omniscient.
Exposition - In this manner, natural behavior of a yogi goes beyond the nature and thereby becomes unusual, and he achieves of the dignity of mastering all supernatural things and he becomes omniscient.

156.
Translation - His passiveness from this erases the seed of original shortcomings and he becomes one with the creation (Kaivalya).
Exposition - When there is no feeling of achievement even after achieving great sovereignty over nature, origin of ostentatious shortcomings like feeling of exhilaration about achieving sovereignty over nature is no longer felt. This state is termed as exclusive Kaivalya.

157.
Translation - When passiveness is established, not doing anything about it causes undesirable occasion.
Exposition - If a yogi who is indifferent to his sovereignty doesn’t become passive to the passivity itself, his Kaivalya will remain doubtful and he will not attain actual Kaivalya.

158.
Translation - When one advances the progress after overcoming the feeling of exhilaration, then Sanyam causes super-judgment to arise and thereby wisdom is gained.
Exposition - When one proceeds to perform Sanyam after overcoming the feeling of exhilaration at the moment of attaining passivity even about one’s sovereign glory of yoga, an ability of staying passive about passivity is generated and that causes wisdom.

159.
Translation - When objective is in sight, parity with supernatural compaction is reached, which causes wisdom.
Exposition - When a distinctive character of neutrality even for passivity arises, consciousness of a yogi becomes supernatural, beyond the reaches of space and time, and assumes no limits. At this point, it is unique like itself only. This itself is the knowledge accruing to a balanced intellect.

160.
Translation - That which takes one beyond all matters, altogether different, devoid of courses, such knowledge is caused by a balanced super intellect.
Exposition - A wisdom that causes passivity even about passiveness towards the entire sovereign power of yoga and which takes even beyond that, that which is beyond even the knowledge of all matters, and that which is devoid of all routes because all routes terminate in to it, such wisdom arises due to balanced super intellect.

161.
Translation - When purification alike an aloof conscious reality (which is beyond matter, space and time) takes place, absolution is attained.
Exposition - At this point, consciousness of a great yogi, who has reached this stage becomes pure and unites with the aloof conscious reality, which is beyond this entire creation. Then consciousness of a yogi remains in union with a reality, which manifests and then fosters this entire creation and also destroys it, in a reality that manifests itself by manifesting the entire creation and yet remains beyond the creation. A great person like him then beholds himself in the entire creation and becomes the only manifestation of that reality. This state itself is termed as absolution (Kaiwalya).


IV. Kaiwalyapada


162.
Translation - The course of birth, medicaments, mantra, penance and Samadhi makes one adept i.e. a Siddha.
Exposition - Now the course of attaining absolution is described once again. Causes of attaining absolutions as a result of practicing yoga are as follows; birth of a physical body, employing medicaments and thereby attaining longevity and self-reliance, getting spiritual advice viz. secret knowledge of yoga from a guru (i.e. Mentor), tempering in the fires of yoga and as a consequence of that to acquire vast mental capabilities by awakening one’s dormant immense consciousness, employing this mind of yogic powers for procuring Samadhi and then becoming indifferent even about that, these consequences of practicing yoga are the steps towards reaching absolution.

163.
Translation - Inborn nature, by accomplishment in middle i.e. between birth and death, attains result.
Exposition - One avails of a life and reaches absolution by practicing yoga in this course in his lifetime, by fully satisfying himself because his immense consciousness has awakened as a result of practicing yoga.

164.
Translation - A motive of making choices varying with moods does not later impel like him, who is confined in his body.
Exposition - After attaining absolution, the yogi in communion with an awakened element that manifests the entire unmanifest lying within his own body, is no longer inspired to accomplish various objectives in accordance with his own varying moods that were varied due to the varying levels of consciousness.

165.
Translation - Feeling of being causes composition of mind.
Exposition - It is only due to feeling of being that varying levels of consciousness are experienced.

166.
Translation - A mind, which inspires into various impressions, is singular yet appears in plurality.
Exposition - A mind that is manifested on the support of body and cherishes within itself an immense consciousness inspires the body to perform various kinds of acts by means of the body, and the mind appears to be plural owing to varying levels of consciousness, though it is verily singular.

167.
Translation - By performing Dhyan upon the home of breath.
Exposition - When a competency of concentrating is developed in a powerful mind by practicing yoga for awakening the entire consciousness of mind, then its concentration for knowing the resort of consciousness results in the knowledge of original form of consciousness (which is manifested in a body by means of breath). In this state consciousness begins to know the original cause of its manifestation by growing beyond the realm of body in its breathless state.

168.
Translation - Acts of a yogi are inconspicuous and conspicuous and are of three types beyond this.
Exposition - The conscious element – supreme lord, who manifests the consciousness, who is the consciousness of the consciousness is beyond dormant consciousness as well as awakened consciousness. About which you can neither say that it is illuminant or that it is not illuminant, that which can be known only by awakening the entire consciousness and that is a consequence of the three acts – Dharna, Dhyan and Samadhi that are performed by yogis to procure its knowledge and is therefore beyond these acts as well.

169.
Translation - That inspires a desire for one’s own manifestation attaining parity with their consequence.
Exposition - Subsequent to knowing by means of Dhyan, the manifesting spirit of all, the ultimate spiritual reality beyond all, that is when the consequence of Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi have matured, a desire for one’s own manifestation becoming identical to that of the lord – the ultimate element is induced.

170.
Translation - Memory that remains unaffected by birth, space and time becomes sacred and unites with certainty.
Exposition - The unmanifest divine element that is beyond the realm of all, that which remains unaffected by limitations like birth, space and time, the one that assumes no impediment, by knowing that, the awakened, immense consciousness of a yogi then becomes pure beyond the space, time and life and attains union with that ultimate conscious element.

171.
Translation - That desire, being primal, becomes eternal.
Exposition - Owing to a desire of identifying with that element, consciousness of the yogi is united with that element and being primal it becomes eternal.

172.
Translation - Very support of the base of the achiever that has motives of achieving disappears and becomes extinct.
Exposition - That, which is the motive of entire practice since it is the consequence of the entire faculty of yoga and for the knowledge of which the consciousness grows up to becomes replete with yogic power and acquires knowledge of innumerable topics, that immensely powerful consciousness of the yogi is united with that, which is the support of everything. Having already known everything (attaining omniscience), it doesn’t require knowing anymore and being in union with the lord, it becomes as if it doesn’t exist.

173.
Translation - Past and future are due to one’s own self; differentiating time is a property of the body.
Exposition - Body being a fosterer of the consciousness is like an embodiment of virtues. Being confined within this body, consciousness experiences various facets of time like past and future, which have mutual relativity. Time is one such element that remains standstill and yet appears to be motional to us, owing to varying levels of consciousness. It is all the while associated with us, it is experienced and yet it remains beyond the reach of all experiences. Time is itself the cause of consciousness being either dormant or awakened. Results of yoga are also obtained in time itself. When consciousness of the yogi overcomes physical limitations and while developing into immensity becomes focused for knowing the foundation of everything, he is able to know that being a support of all supports, the original support of everything is time itself. It precludes the authority of past, present and future. This universe itself was in the womb of time before its manifestation. Time conceived it to its own self and then delivered it, and when the time of the creation will expire, it is only time which will remain. Time, that ultimate element itself is the lord that manifests everything, that fosters and destroys everything. After having a direct perception of this great reality, the yogi becomes time-conscious and by uniting with time he reaches beyond the relativity of past and future.

174.
Translation - These are subtle properties of him who is manifested.
Exposition - Consciousness manifests itself through the medium of a body and experiences the body related subtle properties like past and future that are experienced due to varying level of focusing of its own self.

175.
Translation - Uniformity of consequences gives a singular reality.
Exposition - When consciousness awakens in its immensity and unites with the time, the yogi becomes time-conscious and then realizes that past, present and future, which are experienced due to varying levels of consciousness, are in fact one singular reality. He is able to know that the destiny of every object is to be finished by time and then once again to be created by time and is therefore the same.

176.
Translation - Object is similar and yet varying consciousness causes separation and adopts different course.
Exposition - Destiny of objects is uniform and yet owing to levels of consciousness being very many, the course of inspiration corresponding to varying levels appears different and therefore the past, present and future of objects are also experienced varyingly.

177.
Translation - And when by performing Sanyam on the mind it becomes bodyless is that reality not there at that time?
Exposition - Manifested by time, consciousness appears in variety because it is availing of support of varieties of bodies. Consciousness that manifests the entire creation is one and a need for a corporal body is over when consciousness is established in immensity beyond the realm of the body when performing Sanyam on the mind through a bodily awakened consciousness. Even then other supports of consciousness still maintain their existence.

178.
Translation - A subject is known or unknown when the relation of mind and the subject body is established.
Exposition - Consciousness, manifested through the medium of body gets associated with the entire world through the medium of scene and hearing and is thereby inspired to know it. Subsequent to knowing this world, it proceeds to know the yet unknown creator and when it knows him, it unites with the creator that manifests the entire world and achieves the knowledge of the entire creation.

179.
Translation - The knower of the impressions of mind, the creator that is the solitary awakened conscious element and is immutable.
Exposition - The levels of consciousness of mind are permutable and yet time-like supreme lord, who manifests consciousness, the supreme authority of all, being immutable himself, the different impressions of mind manifested by him cause different perceptions to the consciousness.

180.
Translation - Owing to visibility, one’s own perception is not felt.
Exposition - Continuous viewing of various manifestations through the medium of vision for all the time prevents the consciousness that avails of the support of body from being familiar with its own immensity without resorting to the practice of yoga.

181.
Translation - It cannot know both of these simultaneously.
Exposition - It is not possible in the beginning to know oneself together with others by means of consciousness that is limited to seeing and hearing.

182.
Translation - When mind looks inward and causes a meeting of intellect with intellect, a connection with memory takes place.
Exposition - When the mind awakens its immense consciousness in an introspective state beyond word and vision by means of valorous practice of yoga, then the memory of one’s origination is awakened.

183.
Translation - One’s intellect becomes sensitive by becoming identical with that conscious Supreme Being, which is endless and permanent.
Exposition - Having eventually known the origin of one’s origin, consciousness becomes ultimately pure and the yogi by knowing his manifesting spirit becomes possessed of extremely sensitive intellect.

184.
Translation - An intellect that is raised above the state of viewer and a view becomes most significant.
Exposition - The extraordinary sensitive intellect that is gained when consciousness is developed as a result of performing yoga understands the suggestion underlying the word and vision. It is then fixed beyond these and is able to know the manifestor of vision and words.

185.
Translation - Although surrounded by innumerable desires, yet he makes organized efforts for others.
Exposition - The yogi who has awakened his consciousness to this level is a part of this visible world and as such is surrounded by persons with dormant consciousness that is confined in innumerable desires. Being himself an emulative example, he gives them a reflection of their dormant consciousness and inspires them to awaken it themselves.

186.
Translation - I-consciousness of the visionary, who perceives the supreme, comes to an end.
Exposition - Manifesting spirit of the entire world, i.e. the unmanifest time that is beyond past, present and future, the lord that manifests everything and is all pervading and yet he is distinct from everything – a yogi who has a perception of such distinct, has his consciousness united with him. His consciousness grows vaster and still vaster and reaches a stage of liberation from I-consciousness.

187.
Translation - Then a mind that has inclination for discretion is on the threshold of attaining exclusiveness (Kaivalya).
Exposition - Consciousness of a yogi in this state overflows with delight of knowing the lord by his own wisdom and is awakened up to the level of attaining spiritual uniqueness.

188.
Translation - This exultation, at a moment of disregard can cause obstruction.
Exposition - Even in this state a yogi should perform Sanyam for becoming passive to the exultation of knowing the time by controlling himself by his discretion. Any disregard due to exultation can prevent him from attaining spiritual exclusiveness even after making it up to the threshold of attaining spiritual uniqueness (Kaivalya).

189.
Translation - Like afflictions its prevention is advised.
Exposition - Just like the obstructions faced in the initial practice of yoga one should prevent this last ornamental affliction by performing Sanyam.

190.
Translation - One who develops non-affection for this supreme knowledge gains super exaltation and attains Dharmamegha Samadhi.
Exposition - When a yogi having great yogic powers has a direct perception of the time that manifests everything, which is abound in everything and is yet beyond everything, the original conscious element that manifests consciousness, for which the past, present and future wield no authority, this trio remains together all the time in Him, from whose conception this world is manifested and wherein it is destined to merge. Eventually the yogi becomes passive to the exultation of knowing time and finally becomes passive even about remaining passive. This state of splendid sagacity, that is so much illuminant is termed as Dharmamegha Samadhi. Said this way, having accomplished all that was contemplated, the purpose of this pious body that supports the consciousness is over and it is no more of use.

191.
Translation - At this point all the sufferings and deeds are over.
Exposition - Free from all the hindrances and sufferings the yogi at this point is united with the manifesting spirit of all. At this moment all his deeds come to an end by having their objective already accomplished.

192.
Translation - Then owing to the removal of all the coverings and impurities knowing becomes infinite and hardly anything remains to be known.
Exposition - Consciousness of the yogi, after knowing the origin of all knowledge unites with it and all the veils surrounding the consciousness having already vanished, his consciousness becomes infinite. Thereafter the only thing that remains for the yogi is to surrender his body, which was a means of nothing more than awakening the consciousness.

193.
Translation - Then the feeling of obtaining results is over for an accomplished person (one).
Exposition - After having already achieved his objectives, a feeling of getting results comes to an end for that great yogi.

194.
Translation - Results that compete with moment of their achievement are grasped by intellect when they happen.
Exposition - The results of yoga are such that they remain beyond the reach of intellect even until the moment of their arrival and these are grasped by the intellect only after their they are achieved. This trend continues from the beginning up to the end of practicing yoga.

195.
Translation - Spiritual uniqueness (Kaivalya) is a reverse-delivery of effects or a merger into one’s origin by becoming inactive, or that consciousness is established in its own actuality. This itself is the end.
Exposition - A great person who has reached such ultimate position because of his own potency becomes inactive by obtaining the results of activity. He then awakens the consciousness, which is the principle cause of his own manifestation and by means of that he knows the manifestor of consciousness – the lord, the time itself and merges with him. An awakened superhuman, he unites with the time and is established in unmanifest by shedding all limitations of the body in association with the consciousness, which has united with the time i.e. his original form. This itself is termed as an end of all ends.